Moslem pilgrimage is of three kinds.
1. Al-Mukarinah (the uniting) is when the votary performs the Hajj and the Umrah3 together, as was done by the Prophet in his last visit to Meccah.
2. Al-Ifrad (singulation) is when either the Hajj or the Umrah is performed singularly, the former preceding the latter. The pilgrim may be either Al-Mufrid b’il Hajj (one who is performing only the Hajj), or vice versa, Al-Mufrid b’il Umrah. According to Abu Hanifah, this form is more efficacious than the following.
3. Al-Tamattu ( possession) is when the pilgrim assumes the Ihram, and preserves it throughout the months of Shawwal, Zu’l Kaadah, and nine days (ten nights) in Zu’l Hijjah,4 performing Hajj and Umrah the while.
There is another threefold division of pilgrimage:
1. Umrah (the little pilgrimage), performed at any time except the pilgrimage season. It differs in some of its forms from Hajj, as will afterwards appear.
2. Hajj (or simple pilgrimage), performed at the proper season.
3. Hajj al-Akbar (the great pilgrimage) is when the “day of Arafat” happens to fall upon a Friday. This is a most auspicious occasion. M. Caussin de Perceval and other writers, departing from the practice of (modern?) Islam, make “Hajj al-Akbar” to mean the simple pilgrimage, in opposition to the Umrah, which they call “Hajj al-Asghar.”
The following compendium of the Shafei pilgrim-rites is translated from a little treatise by Mohammed of Shirbin, surnamed Al-Khatib, a learned doctor, whose work is generally read in Egypt and in the countries adjoining.
Know, says the theologist, with scant preamble, “that the acts of Al-Hajj, or pilgrimage, are of three kinds:
“1. Al-Arkan or Farayz; those made obligatory by Koranic precepts, and therefore essentially necessary, and not admitting expiatory or vicarious atonement, either in Hajj or Umrah.
“2. Al-Wajibat (requisites); the omission of which may, according to some schools,6 be compensated for by the Fidyat, or atoning sacrifice: and
“3. Al-Sunan (pl. of Sunnat), the practice of the Prophet, which may be departed from without positive sin.
“Now, the Arkan, the ‘pillars’ upon which the rite stands, are six in number,7 viz.:
“1. Al-Ihram (‘rendering unlawful’), or the wearing pilgrim garb and avoiding certain actions.
“2. Al-Wukuf, the ‘standing’ upon Mount Arafat.
“3. The Tawaf al-Ifazah, or circumambulation of impetuosity.8
“4. The Sai, or course between Mounts Safa and Marwah.
“5. Al-Halk; tonsure (of the whole or part) of the head for men; or taksir, cutting the hair (for men or women).9
“6. Al-Tartib, or the due order of the ceremonies, as above enumerated. “But Al-Sai (4), may either precede or follow Al-Wukuf (2), provided that the Tawaf al-Kudum, or the circumambulation of arrival, has previously been performed. And Halk (5) may be done before as well as after the Tawaf al-Ifazah (3).
“Now, the Wajibat (requisites of pilgrimage, also called ‘Nusuk’) are five in number, viz.:
“1. Al-Ihram, or assuming pilgrim garb, from the Mikat, or fixed limit.10
“2. The Mabit, or nighting at Muzdalifah: for this a short portion, generally in the latter watch, preceding the Yaum al-Nahr, or victim-day, suffices.
“3. The spending at Muna the three nights of the ‘Ayyam al-Tashrik,’ or days of drying flesh: of these, the first is the most important.
“4. The Rami al-Jimar, or casting stones at the devil: and
“5. The avoiding of all things forbidden to the pilgrim when in a state of Ihram.
“Some writers reduce these requisites by omitting the second and third. The Tawaf al-Widaa, or the circumambulation of farewell, is a ‘Wajib Mustakill,’ or particular requisite, which may, however, be omitted without prejudice to pilgrimage.
“Finally, the Sunnat of pilgrimage are many in number. Of these I enumerate but a few. ‘Hajj’ should precede ‘Umrah.’ The ‘Talbiyat’ should be frequently ejaculated. The ‘Tawaf al-Kudum’ must be performed on arrival at Meccah, before proceeding to Mount Arafat.11 The two-bow prayer should follow Tawaf. A whole night should be passed at Muzdalifah and Muna.12 The circumambulation of farewell must not be forgotten,13 and the pilgrim should avoid all sewn clothes, even slippers.
“Before doffing his laical garment, the pilgrim performs a total ablution, shaves, and perfumes himself. He then puts on a ‘Rida’ and an ‘Izar,14’ both new, clean, and of a white colour: after which he performs a two-bow prayer (the ‘Sunnat’ of Al-Ihram), with a sotto-voce Niyat, specifying which rite he intends.15
“When Muhrim (i.e. in Ihram), the Moslem is forbidden (unless in case of sickness, necessity, over-heat, or unendurable cold, when a victim must expiate the transgression),
“1. To cover his head with aught which may be deemed a covering, as a cap or turband; but he may carry an umbrella, dive under water, stand in the shade, and even place his hands upon his head. A woman may wear sewn clothes, white or light blue (not black), but her face-veil should be kept at a distance from her face.
“2. To wear anything sewn or with seams, as shirt, trowsers, or slippers; anything knotted or woven, as chain-armour; but the pilgrim may use, for instance, a torn-up shirt or trowsers bound round his loins or thrown over his shoulders, he may knot his ‘Izar,’ and tie it with a cord, and he may gird his waist.
“3. To knot the Rida, or shoulder-cloth.16
“4. To deviate from absolute chastity, even kissing being forbidden to the Muhrim. Marriage cannot be contracted during the pilgrimage season.
“5. To use perfumes, oil, curling the locks, or removing the nails and hair by paring, cutting, plucking, or burning. The nails may be employed to remove pediculi from the hair and clothes, but with care, that no pile fall off.
“6. To hunt wild animals, or to kill those which were such originally. But he may destroy the ‘five noxious,’—a kite, a crow, a rat, a scorpion, and a dog given to biting. He must not cut down a tree,17 or pluck up a self-growing plant; but he is permitted to reap and to cut grass.
“It is meritorious for the pilgrim often to raise the ‘Talbiyat’ cry (for which see p. 140 ante).
|“‘Labbayk’ Allahumma Labbayk’! ‘La Sharika laka Labbayk’! Inna ’l hamda wa ’l ni’amata laka w’al mulk! La Sharika laka, Labbayk.’18|
“When assuming the pilgrim-garb, and before entering Meccah, ‘Ghusl,’ or total ablution, should be performed; but if water be not procurable, the Tayammum, or sand ablution, suffices. The pilgrim should enter the Holy City by day and on foot. When his glance falls upon the Kaabah he should say, ‘O Allah, increase this (Thy) house in degree, and greatness, and honour, and awfulness, and increase all those who have honoured it and glorified it, the Hajis and the Mutamirs (Umrah-performers), with degree, and greatness, and honour, and dignity!’ Entering the outer Bab al-Salam, he must exclaim, ‘O Allah, Thou art the Safety, and from Thee is the Safety!’ And then passing into the Mosque, he should repair to the ‘Black Stone,’ touch it with his right hand, kiss it, and commence his circumambulation.19
“Now, the victims of Al-Ihram are five in number, viz.:
“1. The ‘Victim of Requisites,’ when a pilgrim accidentally or willingly omits to perform a requisite, such as the assumption of the pilgrim garb at the proper place. This victim is a sheep, sacrificed at the id al-Kurban (in addition to the usual offering),20 or, in lieu of it, ten days’ fast—three of them in the Hajj season (viz. on the 6th, 7th, and 8th days of Zu’l Hijjah) and seven after returning home.
“2. The ‘Victim of Luxuries,’ (Turfah), such as shaving the head or using perfumes. This is a sheep, or a three days’ fast, or alms, consisting of three saa measures of grain, distributed among six paupers.
“3. The ‘Victim of suddenly returning to Laical Life’; that is to say, before the proper time. It is also a sheep, after the sacrifice of which the pilgrim shaves his head.
“4. The ‘Victim of killing Game.’ If the animal slain be one for which the tame equivalents be procurable (a camel for an ostrich, a cow for a wild ass or cow, and a goat for a gazelle), the pilgrim should sacrifice it, or distribute its value, or purchase with it grain for the poor, or fast one day for each ‘Mudd’ measure. If the equivalent be not procurable, the offender must buy its value of grain for alms-deeds, or fast a day for every measure.
“5. The ‘Victim of Incontinence.’ This offering is either a male or a female camel21; these failing, a cow or seven sheep, or the value of a camel in grain distributed to the poor, or a day’s fast for each measure.
“Of this ceremony there are five Wajibat, or requisites, viz.:Concealing ‘the shame,22’ as in prayer. Ceremonial purity of body, garments, and place. Circumambulation inside the Mosque. Seven circuits of the house. Commencement of circuit from the Black Stone. Circumambulating the house with the left shoulder presented to it. Circuiting the house outside its Shazarwan, or marble basement.23 And, lastly, the Niyat, or intention of Tawaf, specifying whether it be for Hajj or for Umrah.
“Of the same ceremony the principal Sunnat, or practices, are to walk on foot; to touch, kiss, and place his forehead upon the Black Stone, if possible after each circuit to place the hand upon the Rukn al-Yamani (South corner), but not to kiss it; to pray during each circuit for what is best for man (pardon of sins); to quote lengthily from the Koran,24 and to often say, ‘Subhan Allah!’ and to mention none but Allah; to walk slowly, during the first three circuits, and trotting the last four,25 all the while maintaining a humble and contrite demeanour, with downcast eyes.
“The following are the prayers which have descended to us by tradition: “When touching the Black Stone the pilgrim says,26 after Niyat, ‘In the name of Allah, and Allah is omnipotent! O Allah (I do this) in Thy belief and in verification of Thy book, and in faithfulness to Thy covenant, and in pursuance of the example of Thy Prophet Mohammedmay Allah bless Him and preserve!’
“Opposite the door of the house: ‘O Allah, verily the House is Thy House, and the Sanctuary thy Sanctuary, and the Safeguard Thy Safeguard, and this is the place of the Fugitive to flee from Hell-fire!’
“Arrived at the Rukn al-Iraki (North corner): ‘O Allah, verily I take refuge with Thee from Polytheism (Shirk), and Disobedience, and Hypocrisy, and Evil Conversation, and Evil Thoughts concerning Family (Ahl, ‘a wife’), and Property, and Progeny!’
“Parallel with the Mizab, or rain-spout: ‘O Allah, shadow me in Thy Shadow that day when there is no shade but Thy Shadow, and cause me to drink from the Cup of Thy Prophet Mohammedmay Allah bless Him and preserve!that pleasant Draught after which is no thirst to all eternity, O Lord of Honour and Glory!’ RESUME At the corners Al-Shami and Al-Yamani (West and South angles): ‘O Allah, make it an Acceptable Pilgrimage, and the Forgiveness of Sins, and a Laudable Endeavour, and a Pleasant Action in Thy Sight, and a Store that perisheth not, O Thou Glorious! O Thou Pardoner!’27
“And between the Southern and Eastern corners: ‘O Lord, grant to us in this World Prosperity, and in the next World Prosperity, and save us from the Punishment of Fire!’
“After the sevenfold circumambulation the pilgrim should recite a two-bow prayer, the ‘Sunnat of Tawaf,’ behind the Makam Ibrahim. If unable to pray there, he may take any other part of the Mosque. These devotions are performed silently by day and aloud by night. And after prayer the pilgrim should return to the Black Stone, and kiss it.
“After performing Tawaf, the pilgrim should issue from the gate ‘Al-Safa’ (or another, if necessary), and ascend the steps of Mount Safa, about a man’s height from the street.28 There he raises the cry Takbir, and implores pardon for his sins. He then descends, and turns towards Mount Marwah at a slow pace. Arrived within six cubits of the Mil al-Akhzar (the ‘green pillar,’ planted in the corner of the temple on the left hand), he runs swiftly till he reaches the ‘two green pillars,’ the left one of which is fixed in the corner of the temple, and the other close to the Dar al-Abbas.29 Thence he again walks slowly up to Marwah, and ascends it as he did Safa. This concludes a single course. The pilgrim then starts from Marwah, and walks, runs, and walks again through the same limits, till the seventh course is concluded.
“There are four requisites of Sai. The pilgrim must pass over all the space between Safa and Marwah; he must begin with Safa, and end with Marwah; he must traverse the distance seven times; and he must perform the rite after some important Tawaf, as that of arrival, or that of return from Arafat.
“The practices of Sai are, briefly, to walk, if possible, to be in a state of ceremonial purity, to quote lengthily from the Koran, and to be abundant in praise of Allah.
“The prayer of Sai is, ‘O my Lord, Pardon and Pity, and pass over that (Sin) which Thou knowest. Verily Thou knowest what is not known, and verily Thou art the most Glorious, the most Generous! O, our Lord, grant us in this World Prosperity, and in the Future Prosperity, and save us from the Punishment of Fire!’
“When Sai is concluded, the pilgrim, if performing only Umrah, shaves his head, or clips his hair, and becomes ‘Muhill,’ returning to the Moslem’s normal state. If he purpose Hajj, or pilgrimage after Umrah, he re-assumes the Ihram. And if he be engaged in pilgrimage, he continues ‘Muhrim,’ i.e., in Ihram, as before.
“The days of pilgrimage are three in number: namely, the 8th, the 9th, and the 10th of the month Zu’l Hijjah.30
“On the first day (8th), called Yaum al-Tarwiyah, the pilgrim should start from Meccah after the dawn-prayer and sunrise, perform his noontide, afternoon, and evening devotions at Muna, where it is a Sunnat that he should sleep.31 On the second day (9th), the ‘Yaum Arafat,’ after performing the early prayer at ‘Ghalas’ (i.e. when a man cannot see his neighbour’s face) on Mount Sabir, near Muna, the pilgrim should start when the sun is risen, proceed to the ‘Mountain of Mercy,’ encamp there, and after performing the noontide and afternoon devotions at Masjid Ibrahim,32 joining and shortening them,33 he should take his station upon the mountain, which is all standing ground. But the best position is that preferred by the Prophet, near the great rocks lying at the lower slope of Arafat. He must be present at the sermon,34 and be abundant in Talbiyat (supplication), Tahlil (recitations of the chapter ‘Say he is the one God!’35), and weeping, for that is the place for the outpouring of tears. There he should stay till sunset, and then decamp and return hastily to Muzdalifah, where he should pass a portion of the night.36 After a visit to the Mosque ‘Mashr al-Harim,’ he should collect seven pebbles and proceed to Muna.37
“Yaum al-Nahr, the third day of the pilgrimage (10th Zu’l Hijjah), is the great festival of the Moslem year. Amongst its many names,38 ‘id al-Kurban’ is the best known, as expressive of Ibrahim’s sacrifice in lieu of Ismail. Most pilgrims, after casting stones at the Akabah, or ‘Great Devil,’ hurry to Meccah. Some enter the Kaabah, whilst others content themselves with performing the Tawaf al-Ifazah, or circumambulation of impetuosity, round the house.39 The pilgrim should then return to Muna, sacrifice a sheep, and sleep there. Strictly speaking, this day concludes the pilgrimage.
‘The second set of ‘trois jours,’ namely, the 11th,40 the 12th, and the 13th of Zu’l Hijjah, are called Ayyam al-Tashrik, or the ‘days of drying flesh in the sun.’ The pilgrim should spend that time at Muna,41 and each day throw seven pebbles at each of the three pillars.42
“When throwing the stones, it is desirable that the pilgrim should cast them far from himself, although he is allowed to place them upon the pillar. The act also should be performed after the Zawal, or declension of the sun. The pilgrim should begin with the pillar near the Masjid al-Khayf, proceed to the Wusta, or central column, and end with the Akabah. If unable to cast the stones during the daytime, he is allowed to do it at night.
“The ‘throwing’ over:—The pilgrim returns to Meccah, and when his journey is fixed, performs the Tawaf al-Widaa (‘of farewell’). On this occasion it is a Sunnat to drink the waters of Zemzem, to enter the temple with more than usual respect and reverence, and bidding it adieu, to depart from the Holy City.
“The Moslem is especially forbidden to take with him cakes made of the earth or dust of the Harim, and similar mementoes, as they savour of idolatry.
“The word ‘Umrah,’ denotes a pilgrimage performed at any time except the pilgrim season (the 8th, 9th, and 10th of Zu’l Hijjah).
“The Arkan or pillars upon which the Umrah rite rests, are five in number, viz.:
“3. Al-Sai (between Safa and Marwah).
“4. Al-Halk (tonsure), or Al-Taksir (cutting the hair).
“5. Al-Tartib, or the due order of ceremonies, as above enumerated.43
“The Wajibat,” or requisites of Umrah, are but two in number:
“1. Al-Ihram, or assuming the pilgrim garb, from the Mikat, or fixed limit; and
“2. The avoiding of all things forbidden to the pilgrim when in state of Ihram.
“In the Sunnat and Mustahabb portions of the ceremony there is no difference between Umrah and Hajj.
“Al-Ziyarat is a practice of the faith, and the most effectual way of drawing near to Allah through his Prophet Mohammed.
“As the Zair arrives at Al-Madinah, when his eyes fall upon the trees of the city, he must bless the Prophet with a loud voice. Then he should enter the Mosque, and sit in the Holy Garden, which is between the pulpit and the tomb, and pray a two-bow prayer in honour of the Masjid. After this he should supplicate pardon for his sins. Then, approaching the sepulchre, and standing four cubits away from it, recite this prayer:
“‘Peace be with Thee, O Thou T.H. and Y.S.,44 Peace be with Thee, and upon Thy Descendants, and Thy Companions, one and all, and upon all the Prophets, and those inspired to instruct Mankind. And I bear witness that Thou hast delivered thy Message, and performed Thy Trust, and advised Thy followers, and swept away Darkness, and fought in Allah’s Path the good Fight: may Allah requite Thee from us the Best with which he ever requited Prophet from his Followers!’
“Let the visitor stand the while before the tomb with respect, and reverence, and singleness of mind, and fear, and awe. After which, let him retreat one cubit, and salute Abu Bakr the Truthful in these words:
“‘Peace be with Thee, O Caliph of Allah’s Prophet over his People, and Aider in the Defence of His Faith!’
“After this, again retreating another cubit, let him bless in the same way Omar the Just. After which, returning to his former station opposite the Prophet’s tomb, he should implore intercession for himself and for all dearest to him. He should not neglect to visit the Bakia Cemetery and the Kuba Mosque, where he should pray for himself and for his brethren of the Muslimin, and the Muslimat, the Muminin and the Muminat,45 the quick of them and the dead. When ready to depart, let the Zair take leave of the Mosque with a two-bow prayer, and visit the tomb, and salute it, and again beg intercession for himself and for those he loves. And the Zair is forbidden to circumambulate the tomb, or to carry away the cakes of clay made by the ignorant with the earth and dust of the Harim.
1. M. Huc’s “Travels in Tartary.” [back]
2. The two extremes, between which lie many gradations, are these. Abu Hanifah directs every Moslem and Moslemah to perform the pilgrimage if they have health and money for the road and for the support of their families; moreover, he allows a deputy-pilgrim, whose expenses must be paid by the principal. Ibn Malik, on the contrary, enjoins every follower to visit Meccah, if able to walk, and to earn his bread on the way. As a general rule, in Al-Islam there are four Shurut al-Wujub, or necessary conditions, viz.: 1. Islam, the being a Moslem. 2. Bulugh, adolescence. 3. Hurriyat, the being a free man. 4. Akl, or mental sanity. Other authorities increase the conditions to eight, viz.: 5. Wujud al-Zad, sufficiency of provision. 6. Al-Rahlah, having a beast of burthen, if living two days’ journey from Meccah. 7. Takhliyat al-Tarik, the road being open; and 8. Imkan al-Masir, the being able to walk two stages, if the pilgrim hath no beast. Others, again, include all conditions under two heads: 1. Sihhat, health. 2. Istitaat, ability. These subjects have exercised not a little the casuistic talents of the Arab doctors: a folio volume might be filled with differences of opinion on the subject, “Is a blind man sound?” [back]
5. In other books the following directions are given to the intended pilgrim:—Before leaving home he must pray two prostrations, concluding the orisons with a long supplication and blessings upon relatives, friends, and neighbours, and he must distribute not fewer than seven silver pieces to the poor. The day should be either a Thursday or a Saturday; some, however, say
“Allah hath honoured the Monday and the Thursday.”
If possible, the first of the month should be chosen, and the hour early dawn. Moreover, the pilgrim should not start without a Rafik, or companion, who should be a pious as well as a travelled man. The other Mukaddamat al-Safar, or preambles to journeying, are the following. Istikharah, consulting the rosary and friends. Khulus al-Niyat, vowing pilgrimage to the Lord (not for lucre or revenge). Settling worldly affairs, paying debts, drawing up a will, and making arrangements for the support of one’s family. Hiring animals from a pious person. The best monture is a camel, because preferred by the Prophet; an ass is not commendable; a man should not walk if he can afford to ride; and the palanquin or litter is, according to some doctors, limited to invalids. Reciting long prayers when mounting, halting, dismounting, and at nightfall. On hills the Takbir should be used: the Tasbih is properest for vales and plains; and Meccah should be blessed when first sighted. Avoiding abuse, curses, or quarrels. Sleeping like the Prophet, namely, in early night (when prayer-hour is distant), with “Iftirash,” or lying at length with the right cheek on the palm of the dexter hand; and near dawn with “Ittaka,” i.e. propping the head upon the hand, with the arm resting upon the elbow. And, lastly, travelling with collyrium-pot, looking-glass and comb, needle and thread for sewing, scissors and tooth-stick, staff and razor. [back]
8. The Ifazah is the impetuous descent from Mount Arafat. Its Tawaf, generally called Tawaf al-Ziyarat, less commonly Tawaf al-Sadr or Tawaf al-Nuzul, is that performed immediately after throwing the stones and resuming the laical dress on the victim-day at Mount Muna. [back]
13. The “Tawaf al-Widaa” is considered a solemn occasion. The pilgrim first performs circumambulation. He drinks the waters of Zemzem, kisses the Kaabah threshold, and stands for some time with his face and body pressed against the Multazem. There, on clinging to the curtain of the Kaabah, he performs Takbir, Tahlil, Tahmid, and blesses the Prophet, weeping, if possible, but certainly groaning. He then leaves the Mosque, backing out of it with tears and lamentations, till he reaches the “Bab al-Widaa,” whence, with a parting glance at the Bayt Ullah, he wends his way home. [back]
17. Hunting, killing, or maiming beasts in Sanctuary land and cutting down trees, are acts equally forbidden to the Muhrim and the Muhill (the Moslem in his normal state). For a large tree a camel, for a small one a sheep, must be sacrificed. [back]
18. See chapter v. After the “Talbiyat” the pilgrim should bless the Prophet, and beg from Allah paradise and protection from hell, saying, “O Allah, by thy mercy spare us from the pains of hell-fire!” [back]
30. The Arab legend is, that the angels asking the Almighty why Ibrahim was called Al-Khalil (or God’s friend); they were told that all his thoughts were fixed on heaven; and when they called to mind that he had a wife and child, Allah convinced them of the Patriarch’s sanctity by a trial. One night Ibrahim saw, in a vision, a speaker, who said to him, “Allah orders thee to draw near him with a victim!” He awoke, and not comprehending the scope of the dream, took especial notice of it ([Arabic]); hence the first day of pilgrimage is called Yaum al-Tarwiyah. The same speaker visited him on the next night, saying, “Sacrifice what is dearest to thee!” From the Patriarch’s knowing ([Arabic]) what the first vision meant, the second day is called Yaum Arafat. On the third night he was ordered to sacrifice Ismail; hence that day is called Yaum Nahr (of “throat-cutting”). The English reader will bear in mind that the Moslem day begins at sunset. I believe that the origin of “Tarwiyat” (which may mean “carrying water”) dates from the time of pagan Arabs, who spent that day in providing themselves with the necessary. Yaum Arafat derives its name from the hill, and Yaum al-Nahr from the victims offered to the idols in the Muna valley. [back]
31. The present generation of pilgrims, finding the delay inconvenient, always pass on to Arafat without halting, and generally arrive at the mountain late in the afternoon of the 8th, that is to say, the first day of pilgrimage. Consequently, they pray the morning prayer of the 9th at Arafat. [back]
33. The Shafei when engaged on a journey which takes up a night and day, is allowed to shorten his prayers, and to “join the noon with the afternoon,” and the evening with the night devotions; thus reducing the number of times from five to three per diem. The Hanafi school allows this on one day and on one occasion only, namely, on the ninth of Zu’l Hijjah (arriving at Muzdalifah), when at the “Isha” hour it prays the Maghrib and the Isha prayers together. [back]
34. If the pilgrim be too late for the sermon, his labour is irretrievably lost.—M. Caussin de Perceval (vol. iii. pp. 301-305) makes the Prophet to have preached from his camel Al-Kaswa on a platform at Mount Arafat before noon, and to have again addressed the people after the post-meridian prayers at the station Al-Sakharat. Mohammed’s last pilgrimage, called by Moslems Hajjat al-Bilagh (“of perfection,” as completing the faith), Hajjat al-Islam, or Hajjat al-Widaa (“of farewell”), is minutely described by historians as the type and pattern of pilgrimage to all generations. [back]
36. Most schools prefer to sleep, as the Prophet did, at Muzdalifah, pray the night devotions there, and when the yellowness of the next dawn appears, collect the seven pebbles and proceed to Muna. The Shafei, however, generally leave Muzdalifah about midnight. [back]
38. id al-Kurban, or the Festival of Victims (known to the Turks as Kurban Bayram, to the Indians as Bakar-id, the Kine Fête), id al-Zuha, “of forenoon,” or id al-Azha, “of serene night.” The day is called Yaum al-Nahr, “of throat-cutting.” [back]
41. “The days of drying flesh,” because at this period pilgrims prepare provisions for their return, by cutting up their victims, and exposing to the sun large slices slung upon long lines of cord. The schools have introduced many modifications into the ceremonies of these three days. Some spend the whole time at Muna, and return to Meccah on the morning of the 13th. Others return on the 12th, especially when that day happens to fall upon a Friday. [back]